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Useful Glossary of Terms


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Glossary page


Alphabetical Index
B | C | D | E | G | H | I

A/V Dubbing
With the touch of a button Audio/Video dubbing is possible. Audio dubbing replaces the sound without affecting the picture. Video dubbing replaces just the video without affecting the sound. Any VCR with A/V inputs can be set up to do A/V dubbing, however not all have an A/V Dubbing button.
Access card
A removable credit-card-sized plastic card included with each satellite receiver. The card identifies each individual receiver and provides PPV billing information each month to your program provider.
Access Control System
The mechanism, which takes care of the conditional access.
A motor system that drives a motorized multi-satellite dish antenna.
Additional Outlet (A/O)
Receivers other than the primary one can be connected to the dish allowing other televisions in the house to be on different programs than the one connected to the primary receiver. An A/O also refers to a convenience outlet where there is not another receiver and the television will show the same programs as the television connected to receiver.
Alternative Audio
When a program offers more than one audio channel, customers can take advantage of that using the alternate audio feature on the satellite receiver system. There are two types of alternate audio programming: Secondary Audio Programming (SAP) and Multiple Audio Programs. SAP is a standard TV feature. Multiple Audio Programs deliver a set of audio selections with a specific program on each audio channel.
Device, which picks up and delivers satellite signals to a receiver; most commonly a dish antenna.
The point in a satellite's orbit when it is at its furthest distance from the Earth.
Audio/Video Jacks
The A/V output jacks at the rear of a satellite receiver provide a superior picture and sound to your TV, VCR and Sound system. There are three jacks: one for the video, one for the right channel sound and one for the left channel sound. The audio jacks are necessary for the sound to be in stereo.
Auto Clock Set
Clocks on models with this feature always display the correct time and never need to be reset. This is a handy feature for anyone who uses their VCRs to record programs.
Auto Head Cleaner
Tapes played in your VCR leave magnetic residue that can degrade the overall picture quality during playback. This feature automatically cleans the video heads every time you insert or eject a tape.
The angular distance (side to side) from true north, along the horizon, to the DBS satellite, measured in degrees. During installation of your DBS system, you (or the installer) can punch your zip code or latitude and longitude into the DBS receiver's setup screen and get precise azimuth and elevation angles for your location. You need this information to make sure that your dish is accurately aimed at the satellite.

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Range of frequencies occupied by a signal or allowed by receiving equipment (basically, what a receiver is capable of receiving).
The raw satellite TV signal before it is re-modulated to become a signal that is suitable for a TV.
A satellite transmission pattern. It may be wide, narrow or spot.
Binary digit
The smallest unit of data in a digital system, with a value of either 0 or 1. A group of bits, such as 8-bits or 16-bits, compose a byte. The number of bits in a byte depends upon the processing system being used. Whenever you see a lowercase b associated with a number, it's likely to be a bit. It can be prefixed with kilo- (for 1,024 bits, or 2 to the 10th power) or mega- (1,024 x 1,024 bits)--and sometimes finds its way into data transfer speeds (such as 14.4 kbps).>
An alternative name for a satellite.
Blackout Area
A predefined area of the country where a particular programming service will not be available, usually because of contractual agreements.
A particular programming service may not be available in certain areas of the country. Usually, because of contractual agreements.
A group of data bits that are processed together. Typically, a byte consists of 8 bits. There are kilobytes, Megabytes, Gigabytes, Terabytes, etc. 1 Byte = 8 bits 1 kilobyte = about 1,000 bytes 1 Megabyte = about 1,000,000 bytes 1 Gigabyte = 1,000,000,000 bytes 1 Terabyte = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes.

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Cable Box Control
Your universal remote can change the channels on your cable/satellite box, but that doesn't mean your VCR can. To help make timer recording of your favorite programs easier, a VCR with this feature will automatically change the channels on your cable/satellite decoder boxes, eliminating the need to manually configure the channels before you record.
Castle Rock Broadcast Center
The facility, which provides all DirecTV television reception, tape playback, encoding, and up-linking.
Signal frequency range (3.70-4.20ghz).
Check Switch
A procedural term used in Dish network receivers to establish a good signal connection between the receiver and the multi-sat dish switch. Running a check switch procedure will start a series of test. At the end of the test you will see a display of what satellites you can receive. If you see any " X " listed, call you local service technician or use our database to locate a technician.
Clarke Belt
Named after its founder Arthur C. Clarke, the Clarke Belt is an orbit used by satellites at a height of 22,250 miles, in which satellites make an orbit in 24 hours, yet remain in a fixed position relative to the earth's surface.
Closed Captioning
Text stream included in broadcast signal that provides narrative description of dialogue, action, sounds, and other elements of the picture. Most often used by the hearing impaired and in environments where audio is undesirable (such as in restaurants).
Coax Cable
Coax or coaxial cable is the standard type of cable used by all satellite TV technicians. The cable is round and is available in black, gray and white although black is most common used. Coax cable carries the signal from the dish to the satellite receiver and on to your VCR and TV.
Commercial Advance
VCRs with this feature will locate and electronically mark commercial breaks when recording your favorite programs. During playback the VCR uses these marks to automatically fast forward past commercials, thus providing the viewer a sense of seamless programming.
Conditional Access Module
The (detachable) conditional access interface.
Conditional Access
A method, which ensures the program provider gets paid for its services by the user.

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Digital broadcast satellite. This high-powered satellite uses a Ku-band frequency (12.2 to 12.7 GHz) to deliver programming signals directly to small (18-inch) dishes installed at viewers' homes.
Unit that is connected to a satellite receiver in order to unscramble a picture that is protected by encryption.font>
Digital Audio Broadcasting
Standard which describes the method of transmitting digital audio.
Digital Compression
A process of translating video images into a digital code which takes up less transmission space than the original signal would have. This allows more channels per satellite transponder from four-to-one for live video to eight-to-one for film. Digital Video Broadcast
Broadcast standard for digital radio and television, using MPEG-2 compression. DVB is being supported by all European manufacturers and broadcasters.
See DirecWay.
Direct Broadcast Satellite(DBS)
The signal frequency range (11.70-12.40ghz) intended for direcTV broadcast by satellite TV program providers. Dish Network, DirecTV and Pegasus are all DBS satellite TV systems.
DirecTV Receiver
A satellite receiver used to receiver DirecTV programming. There are several manufactures of DirecTV receivers.
DirecTV System
The trademark name for the consumer hardware created to receive DirecTV programming. The hardware includes a dish (standard size is 18"), a remote control, and the DirecTV Receiver.
DirecTV, Inc.
A subsidiary of Hughes Electronics Corp. that is responsible for developing, implementing, and managing the infrastructure and programming for the DirecTV System.
DirecWay is the new name for the DirecPC satellite internet access system offered by Hughs Networking. The system utilizes geostationary satellites to provide speeds up to 400Kbps (much higher is typical but 400Kbps is the maximum advertised speed). A 3 foot dish is used along with a USB modem. Two connection types are offered. A dial-return-system (DRS) uses your existing dial-up service to provide a connection to the Internet for all out going data and the satellite is used to route all returning data via satellite. The DRS systems offer a very nice Internet browsing experience at about 1/2 the upfront and monthly cost. The satellite-return-systems (SRS) use no phone lines after the initial setup and provides a 24/7 connection. Networking is possible but not supported by Hughes customer support. DirecWay services area marketed through several partners including DirecTV, EarthLink, AOL and others.
DiSEqC (Digital Satellite Equipment Control) system, which is a communication bus between satellite receivers and peripheral equipment using only the existing coaxial cable. DiSEqC? can be integrated into consumer satellite installations to replace all conventional analogue switching, providing a standardized digital system with nonproprietary commands and enabling switching in multi-satellite installations.
Dish 500
A multi-satellite dish used to receive Dish Network programming. Some programing for Dish Network is only available if you have a Dish 500 dish or a 2nd single satellite dish pointed to the 110 satellite for Dish Network. The Dish 500 dish is used to receive simultaneous satellite signals from the 119 and 110 satellite slots. The use of the number 500 is misleading. While the multi-sat dish can technically receive 500 channels, most of those channels are local networks from other cites. Since you can't subscribe to those channels you do not have access to 500 channels.
Dish Network Receiver
All Dish Network receivers are manufactured by Echostar Corp. Some units are made for JVC and they do differ slightly, but they are still the same.
Dish Network System
The trademark name for the consumer hardware created to receive Dish Network programming. The hardware includes a dish (standard size is a 20" multi-sat dish, called Dish 500), a remote control, and the Dish Network Receiver.
Dish Network
The trademark name of Echostar, Inc. for its DBS Satellite TV system and programing.
Dish PRO
Dish PRO technology is used by Dish Network . All Dish Network receivers since early 2002 are Dish PRO ready. The Dish PRO technology uses a 1 Ghz bandwidth at 950 to 1950 Mhz to transfer the satellite signal from the LNBF to the receiver. The LNBF voltage is fixed at 19 VDC. Dish PRO uses DiSEeqC controls to communicate with the LNBF for multi-satellite selection. Dish PRO compatible receivers will also work with standard LNBS. Adapters are available to convert Dish PRO signals to standard signals for incorporating non Dish PRO compatible receivers into a Dish PRO system.
Dolby Pro Logic
Dolby Pro Logic (known as Dolby Surround in the theaters) is based on the use of an amplitude-phase matrix. This is a method of encoding four channels of information into two tracks of stereo media and then decoding them back into four channels for playback.
A signal's path from satellite to antenna.
Digital Satellite System, also a common name used to refer to a DirecTV satellite system or component.
Direct to home. Official term used by the Federal Communications Commission industry to refer to the satellite television and broadcasting industries.
DTH Broadcast Satellite
Direct-to-Home Broadcast Satellite. DIRECTV® and USSB's satellites are manufactured by Hughes. Echostars' satellite are manufactured by Lockheed Martin. These satellites are in a geostationary orbit about 22,800 miles above the earth in various orbital slots within the Clarke Belt.
Dual LNB
A dual LNB has two coax connections. You can operate up to two satellite receivers with a dual LNB. Do not confuse this with a dish that has room for two LNB's.
Broadcast standard for digital radio and television, using MPEG II compression. DVB is being supported by all European manufacturers and broadcasters.

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The company that owns and operates Dish Network.
Electronic Program Guide (EPG)
A chronological listing of all available programming covering an extended time period (typically 36 hours or more). This listing displays on your TV screen.
The upward tilt to a satellite dish antenna measured in degrees required to aim the antenna at the communications satellite.When aimed at the horizon, the elevation angle is zero. If it were tilted to a point directly overhead, the satellite antenna would have an elevation of 90 degrees.

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Gauge is a unit used to measure wire thickness. The smaller the number, the thicker the wire. (i.e. 10 gauge wire is much thicker than 16 gauge wire).
Satellites orbit the Earth 22,300 miles above the Equator and rotate at the same relative speed and direction as the Earth's surface. Therefore, the satellites appear stationary. There are nearly 40 satellites currently in this type of orbit over North America, and well over 100 around the globe.

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Hi-Speed Rewind
Players with this feature will rewind tapes at a faster speed. A great feature for those of us who are always rushing to get our movie rentals back on time.
Hard Reset
A hard reset is the same as rebooting a computer. First turn the unit off, unplug the power cord, remove the access card, reinstall the access card, wait 1 minute and plug the power cord back in. Turn it back on. That's it! For help in located your access card go here.
HDTV (High-DefinitionTelevision)
High Definition Television is a digital television format, which combines high-resolution video and theater like sound to create a movie theater quality TV viewing experience.
Hi-Fi Stereo
Generates virtually the same sound range and clarity of a compact disc. This feature is the critical component to quality home theater. All Super VHS models have Hi-Fi.

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Index Plus+ Programming
This feature enables you to begin taping a new program onto a partially recorded tape. You enter the counter number where the existing footage ends, and the VCR will begin taping new programming at that point. With this feature, you can take advantage of the full recording capacity of your tapes.
Impulse Pay-Per-View
Conditional access service where the user is able to buy a particular program on a last-minute decision.
Index Search
With this feature, the machine will move directly to a specific place on the tape. Enables you to go to the beginning or end of taped material.
Infrared Universal RemoteControl
Line-of-sight remote which will control the satellite receiver and two to four other infrared units such as TVs, VCRs, DVDs or stereo amplifiers.
Setting up the customer's dish and equipment to receive DBS programming. Installation includes mounting the satellite dish antenna, positioning it to receive a signal, and activating service.
Installer Technician
A trained field service technician that provides installation services of Dish network, DirecTV, DirecWay or Starband Systems.
Interactive TV
An interactive television service that lets you use the enclosed remote control to access up-to-the-minute news, sports, financial information, weather, get program trivia, respond to free offers and shop, all while you watch TV.
IRD (Integrated ReceiverDecoder)
A satellite receiver with a built-in decoder for unscrambling subscription channels. It is usually called the receiver.

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